Goldheim Bitters featured in Bottles and Extras

Goldheim Bitters featured in Bottles and Extras

08 August 2018

The July | August 2018 issue of Bottles and Extras has a super article on the extremely rare, Goldheim Celebrated Swiss Stomach Bitters from Baltimore. The article was written by Susan Helen Adler. This is a pretty tough-to-get Baltimore bitters square.

All FOHBC members can read online (or in the magazine, of course). Become a member of the FOHBC.

Opening spread – Bottles and Extras

The Carlyn Ring and W.C. Ham listing in Bitters Bottles is as follows:

C 101  GOLDHEIM SWISS WINE STOMACH BITTERS
L. GOLDHEIM / CELEBRATED SWISS WINE / STOMACH BITTERS // f //
NO. 278 WEST PRATT ST / BET. SHARP & HOWARD / BALTIMORE, MD. // f //
9 3/4 x 2 3/4 (7) 3/8
Square, Amber, LTCR, Applied mouth, 2 sp, Extremely rare
Posted in Advertising, Advice, Article Publications, Bitters, Bottles and Extras, Club News, Ephemera, liquor, Liquor Merchant, Medicines & Cures, Spirits | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Daily Dose | July- December 2018

July  December  |  2 0 1 8

17 August 2018 | Friday

Prior to Elias Koopman founding of the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, he was also the founder of The Magic Introduction Company. He later headed the Runsyne Corporation, a maker of electrical signs. Jason Champlin points out interesting enough, there was a bottle made from the Magic Introduction Company.

Read: Koopmann’s Bitters, for use in Marshy and Swampy Districts

14 August 2018 | Tuesday

Hi Ferdinand – I have a labeled Huntington’s Golden Tonic Bitters with two labels that I thought you’d like to see. It confirms that Alpheus was the proprietor of the medicine. The back label also has a 4 cent Proprietary tax stamp dated March 13, 1870. Additional photos are of a pontiled med with his name and Monmouth ME embossed. The other bottle is smooth base with Portland ME embossed. Alpheus moved from Monmouth to Portland (Deering) sometime between 1863 and 1867. He was still located in Deering selling meds as late as 1885. The Horse and Ox liniment ad is from 1860 and the ad for his spruce gum and Golden Tonic Bitters is from 1869. Cheers – Sam Fuller, Stockton Springs ME

Read More: Dr. Huntington’s Golden Tonic Bitters – Portland, Maine

13 August 2018 | Monday

Found this newspaper clipping last night confirming George N.W. Bryant started his apothecary business in NYC on March 19, 1845. Post updated.

Read: Bryant’s Stomach Bitters aka The Cone

11 August 2018 | Saturday

Nice embossed Walters & Co. Baltimore, 3-piece mold cylinder in a beautiful yellow amber found by Thomas Johnson.

Read: William T. Walters and his Museum Bottle

08 August 2018 | Wednesday

Ted Krist gets the bottle “Hawk Eye” award this month for spotting this Old Sachem Bitters bottle sitting on the center top shelf of a Thompson & Co. Grocer ad in 1860.

07 August 2018 | Tuesday

Pocahantas Bitters update. Based on new material provided by bitters authority Ted Krist at the 2018 Cleveland National, we now know that there was a ‘Yates’ Ferguson who is the “Y.” Ferguson embossed on the bottle. This makes finding information a bit easier.

06 August 2018 | Monday

Super Ted Krist Bitters display at the Cleveland National wins BEST IN SHOW! Ted also gave a seminar on bitters.

05 August 2018 | Sunday

Capital Tonic Bitters prepared byJ.R. Chessman, Burlington, New Jersey. Looks to be an unlisted bitters. The Bucks County Gazette, Thursday, October, 22 1891 (Bristol, Pennsylvania)

The Bucks County Gazette, Thursday, October, 22 1891

30 July 2018 | Monday

Hi Ferdinand: I’m in need of your top notch research skills once again. I have a New York? bitters? bottle that I’m coming up blank on. So I know it’s got to be extremely SUPER rare. This one appears to have been blown in the same triangular mold as the triangular B 15, Balsdon’s Golden Bitters. Also a New York bottle. Now, Ring & Ham list three variants of Malakoff Bitters; the M 14 and 15 in Bitters Bottles; and then the M 15.5 in Bitters Bottles Suplement. This one however, looks to be an unlisted, label only bitters, but with only the name MALAKOFF very largely embossed on one panel; and on the other, is LINDENTHAL BRO’S N.Y. (pics included)

So you get around. Do you recall ever coming across this bottle before in your travels? I’m very interested to find out what, if anything, that you’re able to come up with. Thank you Ferdinand. Enjoy the Cleveland expo.

Regards, Chris (Eib)

[PRG] Chris: Your Malakoff by Lindenthal is one killer bottle. Crazy bold. typography. Never seen it before! Looks to be a Russian brand. Malakoff Stomach Elixir from this New York Tribune, 1871 ad. Not related to New Orleans bitters brand.

Read: What about this New Orleans Malakoff Bitters?

29 July 2018 | Sunday

Found this 1867 ad for Dr. Atherton’s Dew Drop Bitters.

15 July 2018 | Sunday

Hi Ferdinand, I wanted you to have these pictures of the Peychaud’s in my collection. I was reading the Appomattox river find. Best regards, David Jackson

Read: Peychaud’s New Orleans Seal found in Appomattox River

Read: Peychaud’s Cocktail Bitters – L.E. Jung and his Gators

07 July 2018 | Saturday

Sorry, been on summer break so to speak. Jeff Wichmann has a new Charles Lediard bottle I have not seen before in his current American Bottle Auctions | Auction 65.

Read: Charles Lediard and his Liquor Products

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Moses Atwood – Atwood’s Jaundice Bitters – Georgetown, Massachusetts

Moses Atwood – Atwood’s Jaundice Bitters – Georgetown, Massachusetts

02 April 2018

I was going through some material the other day that I gathered for the recent Dr. Henry Baxter’s Mandrake Bitters post which referenced the Atwood’s Jaundice Bitters bottle. You see, both bottle shapes are similar. I was curious, who was Moses Atwood?

It turns out that there were two primary Moses Atwoods operating about the same time in New England. Both were in medicine and started out in New Hampshire. This was confusing at first and I wanted to sort it out.

Dr. Moses G. Atwood – Homeopathic Physician

This is not our Moses Atwood of Atwood’s Jaundice Bitters fame. Here we are talking about Dr. Moses G. Atwood from New Hampshire. Moses was the son of Paul and Judith (Stickney) Atwood. He was born on April 6, 1801.

Atwood married first on November 24, 1835 to Mary Lewis, of Francestown, New Hampshire. She was born on July 3, 1808 and died on June 21, 1844. Dr. Atwood married for a second time on May 5, 1846 to Julia Ann Chickering of Amherst, New Hampshire. She was born on August 28, 1815 and died on February 4, 1889.

Dr. Atwood began the practice of medicine in North Lyndeborough in 1827 and studied medicine with Dr. Israel Herrick of Lyndeborough and Dr. Luther Farley of Francestown, New Hampshire. All of the towns mentioned are due west or southwest of Manchester, New Hampshire. Until 1841, Atwood practiced allopathy (treatment of disease by conventional means), and in that year he commenced study with Dr. Samuel Gregg of Boston and became one of the first Americans to practice homeopathy (the treatment of disease by minute doses of natural substances that in a healthy person would produce symptoms of disease) in New Hampshire and the tenth in New England. He was also involved in the printing business and must have owned a print shop as I can find a number of references supporting this notion.

In 1848, Dr. Moses Atwood came to New Boston from Concord, New Hampshire, there removed to Deering and from Deering to Francestown, New Hampshire where he had a very extended practice, probably equal to that of any physician in the county.

Dr. Moses Atwood died in New Boston on April 28, 1850. As a physician, he ranked high and was much esteemed for the many excellencies of his character. He had one son, Luther Parley Atwood of Francestown.

It would be convenient to say that Moses G. Atwood was our Moses Atwood’s (of bitters fame) father, but he wasn’t. I am having trouble tying them together.

Moses D. Atwood of Atwood’s Medicine Fame

OK, this is our guy. Dr. Moses D. Atwood was born on 17 March 1810 in Thornton Grove, Grafton County, New Hampshire. His father was Levi Atwood (1781-1872) and his mother was Elizabeth (Betsey) Francis (1783-1854). Both were from Rockingham County, New Hampshire, the father born in Hampstead, New Hampshire. He was a Baptist minister. From the best that I can tell, they had eleven children, Moses being the fourth. James Atwood was the paternal grandfather and was from Hampstead, New Hampshire. He was a farmer. The maternal grandfather was Levi Francis, of New Hampshire, and of French descent.

This image has been floating around the internet and the file is labeled Moses G. Atwood. This is incorrect. This is probably our bitters guy, Moses D. Atwood as the picture was taken in Washington, Kansas.

Moses had a limited education in his boyhood and at the age of sixteen began the study of medicine with Dr. Symmes Sawyer of Grafton County. At the age of nineteen, he began life for himself in a small way and slowly improved his financial condition. I am not sure how he obtained his M.D. credentials but back then, it really wasn’t hard to call yourself a doctor if you looked like, and practiced like, a doctor.

On May 28, 1833, Moses Atwood married his cousin Mary, daughter of Ezra Atwood. By this marriage, Moses Atwood became the father of eight children. Mary Atwood died on September 25, 1881. Years later, Atwood would wed his second wife, Lydia Knepper. This ceremony took place on November 25, 1884.

In 1842, Moses Atwood moved to Georgetown, Massachusetts and initially partnered with Jannaince where he commenced with the manufacture of his Atwood’s Bitters. The newspaper clipping below notes this. Bateman was a druggist. His son, L. H. Bateman would continue the business.

in 1842, Atwood’s Vegetable Physical Jaundice Bitters now made by L. H. Bateman in Essex, Massachusetts  – Quad City Times, Friday, April 23, 1875

In 1852, Moses Atwood sold the original recipe for his bitters to Moses Carter (see bottle above) and Benjamin Dodge of Georgetown and moved to Iowa where he lived until about 1860. Moses Carter and his son, Luther F. Carter, continued manufacturing several varieties of bitters and also produced native wines and various flavored extracts. The items were peddled from door to door by a salesman who rode around the area with a horse and buggy. The Atwood medicines were manufactured at Georgetown until 1855. During the last three years of their manufacture there, their sales amounted to over $20,000 per annum which was quite a bit back then.

In 1860, Moses F. Atwood, the 21-year old son of Moses D. Atwood, moved back to Georgetown from Iowa. He began working with the Bateman family to manufacture Atwood’s Bitters. He listed his occupation in the 1860 Census as “M.D.”

In 1861, Moses F. Atwood would sell the recipe for preparing and compounding Atwood’s Bitters in the State of Maine to Nathan Wood. He called his bitters Atwood’s Genuine Bitters and had his name and brand embossed on the shoulder and base of a cylindrical bottle (pictured above). In 1875, Luther Carter (representing heirs of the Carter and Bateman families) would sell the patented recipe for Atwood’s Bitters to Manhattan Medicine Company in New York. This must have created problems for in 1878, Manhattan Medicine Company sued Nathan Wood for trademark infringement in the Federal Circuit Court of Maine. Nathan Wood would prevail. This happened a couple of times with the same results.

Read: Manhatten Medicine Company v. Nathan Wood

Moses Atwood, away from all this legal business, subsequently moved from Iowa to Kansas and lived in Independence Township, Washington County where he owned forty acres of land. The portrait further above was taken in Washington, Kansas. Moses Atwood died on 23 July 1892 in Washington County, Kansas.

Left: A labeled Atwood’s Vegetable Physical Bitters Jaundice Bitters. Right: 1931-1939, Atwood’s Physical Jannaice Bitters. The indications or uses for this product as provided by the manufacturer are: For biliousness due to constipation. Recommended as a laxative, stomachic and carminative, for use in constipation and sour stomach resulting in headache. Wyeth Chemical Company, Detroit, Michigan. alcohol 16% (drug active ingredients)

The product was still evident in 1933. as Wyeth Chemical Company was putting it out. See picture above. Our Moses Atwood would die on 23 July 1892. What a testament to a great product that spanned almost a century, though in different hands.

MOSES ATWOOD, M.D., is the inventor of the celebrated “Atwood’s Medicines” which have been so well and favorably known for the past thirty years. The Doctor, though a man of advanced years. is as thoroughly interested now as in his earlier life, in behalf of suffering humanity. The millions of people to whom his remedies have given relief from pain and a new lease of life, may well look upon him in the light of a public benefactor.
The paternal grandfather of our subject was James Atwood, a native of Hampstead, N. H., and a farmer by occupation. The maternal grandfather was Levi Francis, of New Hampshire, and of French descent. The parents of our subject were Levi and Betsey (Francis) Atwood, natives of Rockingham County, N.H., the father having been born in the town of Hampstead. They were married in their native State. Levi Atwood was a Baptist minister, and like all pioneer preachers hard-working and self-denying. After a residence in several New Hampshire towns he finally settled at Nashua, where he died at the age of ninety-three years. The parental family consisted of nine childrcn, four of whom are now living.
The gentleman of whom we write was the third child of his parents, and was born April 24, 1810, at Thornton Grove, Grafton Co., N. H. He had but a limited education in his boyhood, but at the age of sixteen began the study of medicine with Dr. Symmes Sawyer, of Grafton County. At the age of nineteen he began life for himself in a small way and slowly improved his financial condition.
The Atwood medicines were, previous to the year 1855 were manufactured at Georgetown, Mass, and during the last three years of their manufacture there, their sale amounted to over $20,000 per annum. In June, 1855, the Doctor came West to attend to some business affairs not connected with his proprietary medicines and settled in Iowa, where his remedies are now manufactured. Dr. Atwood subsequently removed to this State, and is now living on section 8, Independence Township, Washington County, where he owns forty acres of land.
On May 28, 1833, Dr. Atwood was united in marriage with his cousin Mary, daughter of Ezra Atwood. She died Sept. 25, 1881. A few years later the Doctor took to himself a second wife in the person of Mrs. Lydia Knepper. The ceremony which united them took place Nov. 25, 1884. By his first marriage Dr. Atwood became the father of eight children. five of whom are now living. but all have left the parental fireside.
Atwood is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church as is also his wife. While a resident of New Sharon, Iowa, he was for twelve years a member of the official board of the church, and active in the duties connected therewith. Now at the age of seventy-nine years he is retired from the active practice in which he has been engaged for threescore years. He is a devout Christian and has been more anxious to do good in his day and generation than to accumulate a large amount of this world’s goods. – Portrait and Biographical Album of Washington, Clay and Riley Counties, Kansas: 1890

Select Listings

1810: Moses D. Atwood Birth Date: 17 March 1810
1827: Moses G. Atwood came from Concord,NH to practice medicine in North Lyndeborough in 1827. In 1841 he changed from allopathy to homeopathy, and such was the confidence of his patrons in his skill and judgment that, almost without exception, they continued their patronage. He was the first homeopathic physician in New Hampshire. He died in New Boston, April 28, 1850.
1842: In Georgetown, Moses Atwood commenced the manufacture of Atwood’s Bitters with Lewis H. Bateman in 1842.
1850: Moses Atwood, 40, Birth Year: abt 1810, Birthplace: New Hampshire, Home in 1850: Georgetown, Essex, Massachusetts, Moses Atwood, 40, Mary Atwood 44, Betsey F Atwood 15, Hannah J Atwood 13, Moses F. Atwood 11, Mary Atwood 6, Martha Atwood 4, Stephen Atwood 2 – United States Federal Census
1852: Moses Atwood sold the original recipe for his bitters to Moses Carter and Benjamin Dodge of Georgetown in 1852, and moved to Iowa. Moses Carter and his son, Luther F. Carter, continued manufacturing several varieties of bitters and also produced native wines and various flavored extracts. The items were peddled from door to door by a salesman who rode around the area with a horse and buggy.
1855: In June 1855, Moses Atwood came West to attend to some business affairs not connected with his proprietary medicines and settled in Iowa
1860: Moses F. Atwood, the 21-year old son of Moses D. Atwood, moves back to Georgetown from Iowa. He begins working with the Bateman family to manufacture Atwood’s Bitters. He lists his occupation in the 1860 Census as “M.D.”
1860: Moses Atwood, 50, Birth Year: abt 1810, Birth Place: New Hampshire, Home in 1860: Jackson, Poweshiek, Iowa, Post Office: Montezuma, Occupation: Pedlar, Moses Atwood 50, Mary Atwood 52, Mary Atwood 16, Martha Atwood 14, Stephen Atwood 12, Hariett Atwood 10 – United States Federal Census
1861: Moses F. Atwood sells the recipe for preparing and compounding Atwoods Bitters in the State of Maine to Nathan Wood.
1870: Moses Atwood, 60, Birth Year: abt 1810, Birthplace: New Hampshire, Home in 1870: Prairie, Mahaska, Iowa, Manufactor of Medicine, Personal Estate Value: 935, Real Estate Value: 4000, Inferred Spouse: Mary Atwood, Household Members: Moses Atwood 60, Mary Atwood 62, Mary Atwood 25, Stephen Atwood 22 – United States Federal Census
1875: Luther Carter sold the patented recipe for Atwood’s Bitters to a New York firm who marketed in nationally.
1875: The New York firm of Manhattan Medicine Company formally purchases the rights to Atwoods Bitters from the heirs of L. H. Bateman and Luther Carter.
1878: Manhattan Medicine Company sues Nathan Wood for trademark infringement in the Federal Circuit Court of Maine; Wood prevails.
1880: Moses Atwood, Age: 71, Birth Date: Abt 1809, Birthplace: New Hampshire, Home in 1880: Hanover, Washington, Kansas, Married to Mary Atwood, Father’s Birthplace: New Hampshire, Mother’s Birthplace: New Hampshire, Occupation: Farmer, Household Members: Moses Atwood 71, Mary Atwood 73, Mary Atwood 36, Hattie B. Atwood 27 – United States Federal Census
1883: Manhattan Medicine Company appeals the 1878 court decision to the U.S. Supreme Court. Once again, Wood prevails.
1892: Moses Atwood death 23 July 1892, Washington County, Kansas, Cemetery: Lanham Cemetery
Posted in Advertising, Bitters, Druggist & Drugstore, History, Medicines & Cures | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Daily Dose | April • June 2018

April  June  |  2 0 1 8

24 May 2018 | Thursday

Rare, later Oregon Grape Root Bitters bottle. See at Western Bottle News.

Brad Seigler submitted auction information on this cool bitters dispenser. Visit Auction.

23 May 2018 | Wednesday

Jeeze, could there be a more pronounced embossing! You could stamp concrete with this puppy. On eBay now.

15 May 2018 | Tuesday

Ferdinand, I picked this up recently. It is an exact match for the bottle described in the last advertisement in your 2014 write-up of the Dr. Langley’s Rocky Mountain Bitters. It was bought in Rochester, New York, so this matched the location of the address listed in the advertisement as well. I have never seen one of these before. It is a striking and big bottle and could not have been cheap to manufacture with the big ground stopper. Brandon DeWolfe, P.E.

14 May 2018 | Monday

Post update with example bottle for Red Jacket Bitters. Read: He had a new variety of bitters known as Red Jacket Bitters

Also: Red Jacket Bitters – Another Chicago ‘Indian’

08 April 2018 | Sunday

Hi Ferdinand,

Found this ad in a 1860 Gardiner, Maine newspaper. Not sure if its unknown but found no reference online or in For Bitters Only. Not sure if you keep unknowns in a database somewhere but here it is if you do. Thanks, really enjoy your research.

Mike Kettell

From the Gardiner Home Journal, published in Gardiner, Maine on Thursday, March 22nd, 1860.

[FM] Nice!, this appears to be unlisted. I will get with Bill Ham for a listing. Testimonial from a Dr. W. Pincon in 1859 stating that he made these bitters at home and started using on patients in 1831. Checking further, we are taking about Dr. Welcome Pincin who was born in Massachusetts in 1800. He died on 08 November, 1864. His wife was Deborah (Croker).

[FM] Update from Bill Ham.

Advertisement
P 97.5 DR. W. PINCIN’S JAUNDICE BITTERS, Sold in Gardiner (Maine) by C. A. & J. D. White, March 23, 1859
Dr. Welcome Pincin’s testimonial stated that he made these bitters at home and started using on patients in 1831.

04 April 2018 | Wednesday

Ferd: I just posted your piece on Buhrer on my Whisky Men blog.  Thanks for letting me use it.  Have you thought about putting it in the Cleveland National Souvenir Program Book.  Jack (Sullivan)

Read: Hon. Stephen Buhrer — Self-Made in Cleveland

02 April 2018 | Monday

What are the chances… stumbled across this reader’s letter in the 6/86 issue of Antique Bottle & Glass Collector. Sheds a little more light on the elusive DR. JOHNS STOMACH BITTERS.  “Digger” and Jim Hagenbuch had never heard of it in 1986. – Jeff Burkhardt

Jeff: Not sure if you knew, but I was able to add a complete example to my collection recently.

Read: The elusive Dr. John’s Stomach Bitters

Posted in Advice, Daily Dose | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

Dr. Henry Baxter’s Mandrake Bitters – Vermont

Dr. Henry Baxter’s Mandrake Bitters – Vermont

27 March 2018

I’ve had a Dr. Baxter’s Mandrake Bitters tucked away in my collection for many years. The bottle is from Burlington, Vermont and is kind of cool because it has 12 sides! It is pretty common though so it doesn’t get much attention. I like it anyway and it remains a favorite.

I thought I would do a post because a framed advertising piece closed on McMurray Antiques & Auctions this past Sunday. It is pictured at the top of this post. Terry McMurray’s lot write-up is below:

DR. HENRY BAXTER’S MANDRAKE BITTERS CURES DYSPEPSIA, CONSTIPATION, SICK HEADACHE. ONLY 25 CENTS. LIQUID OR TABLETS. 21” X 25” PAPER SIGN IN EX. CONDITION IN A NICE PERIOD OAK FRAME. NICE IMAGE OF YOUNG GIRL HOLDING FLOWER AT CENTER. A RARE AND ATTRACTIVE PATENT MEDICINE SIGN I’VE NOT SEEN BEFORE AND READY TO HANG ON THE WALL. ALSO PICTURED ON THE FRONT COVER OF THIS CATALOG. (600-1,000)

Advertisement above from the Joe Gourd Collection

Dr. Henry Baxter was born in Norwich, Vermont in 1821 and settled in Highgate Falls, Vermont in 1842. He was primarily a physician though he owned and managed several businesses in Highgate including furniture, drug and grocery stores and H. W. Baxter & Co. undertakers. His patented medicine, Dr. Baxter’s Mandrake Bitters, was sold throughout Vermont in the late 19th century and as the advertising states, cured constipation, dyspepsia and sick headaches. It was sold for 25 cents in a liquid and pill form. It is thought that mandrake contains deliriant hallucinogenic tropane alkaloids so that’s a blast. The brand was represented by Henry, Johnson & Lord in Burlington, Vermont. Henry Baxter died on 27 September 1897 in Highgate, Franklin County, Vermont.

The Carlyn Ring and W.C. Ham listing in Bitters Bottles is as follows:

B 36  DR. BAXTER’S MANDRAKE BITTERS
DR. BAXTER’S // MANDRAKE BITTERS // LORD BROS // PROPRIETORS // BURLINGTON, VT. // f // f // f // f // f // f // f //
L…Dr. Henry Baxter’s Anti-Bilious and Jaundice Compound Mandrake Bitters
6 3/4 x 2 1/4 (5) 6 1/4 x 2 1/4 (5)
12-sided, DC, Green-Extremely rare; Amber-Rare; Clear-Scarce; Aqua-Common
Label: Henry, Johnson & Lord, Proprietors, Burlington, VT., Successors to Dr. Henry Baxter.
Note: Lettering varies in height and width. Found with and without apostrophe in Baxter’s and in Bro’s.

A labeled Dr. Henry Baxter’s Mandrake Bitters – VT Medicines

The bottle is pretty much the same form or very similar to a Dr. Carey’s Original Mandrake Bitters and Barber’s Indian Vegetable Jaundice Bitters from Rhode Island. You are also reminded of the family of Atwood’s Bitters.

Dr. Henry Baxter

Dr. Henry Baxter (1821-1897) settled in Highgate Falls, Vermont, in 1842. He owned and managed several businesses in Highgate including furniture, drug and grocery stores and H. W. Baxter & Co. undertakers. His patented medicine, Dr. Baxter’s Mandrake Bitters, was sold throughout Vermont in the late 19th century.

He purchased the land and structure(s) known as the Manor House in the 1860s. The Manor House (also known as The Highgate Manor and Manor Mayfair) was used as a hotel, restaurant, B & B and had an interesting history, which included that of a haunted inn.

Dr. Henry Baxter married Adelia Inoly Woodruff (1822-1887) in 1843. Their son, Frank Woodruff Baxter (1843-1897), married Marion Barney in 1866. Children born to Frank and Marion Baxter were Harry Wallace Baxter (1878-1945), who married Alice Cary Brown in Swanton, Vermont, on 26 June 1902, and Harriet Marion Baxter, who married Dr. Henry Clay Ide of St. Johnsbury, Vermont.

Children of Harry W. Baxter and Alice Cary Brown were George Henry Baxter (b. 1894), Charles Oliver Baxter (b. 1906), Dorothy Alice Baxter (b. 1909), and Ida Elizabeth Baxter (b. 1914). Children of Dr. Henry C. Ide and Harriet Marion Baxter were Paul A. Ide and Robert E. Ide.

Charles Oliver Baxter, great-grandson of Dr. Henry Baxter operated the Boucher Clothing Store in Swanton for many years. The collection includes memorabilia, photos and letters to and from Charles Baxter during World War II. He never married. – Baxter Family of Swanton & Highgate Falls, Vt., Papers, 1821 – 1983

Henry Johnson & Lord

Henry, Johnson & Lord commenced business in Waterbury, Vermont in 1855. Lord Brothers were successors to the old house of Henry & Co. They pushed the wholesale drug trade so hard; they soon supplied the whole trade of Vermont, northern NY and NH with their goods. The company specialties included N.H. Downs Elixir, Arnica and Oil Liniment and many other extracts and essences. [VT Medicines]

Read: Johnson’s Calisaya Bitters – Burlington, Vermont

1886 Henry, Johnson & Lord Household Almanac (front) – Joe Gourd Collection

Henry, Johnson & Lord Household Almanac (back). Dr. Baxter’s Mandrake Bitters referenced – Joe Gourd Collection

Henry, Johnson & Lord Book Mark (front & back). Dr. Henry Baxter’s Mandrake Bitters noted on reverse – Joe Gourd Collection

1898 Henry, Johnson & Lord envelope. Baxter’s Mandrake Bitters noted. – Joe Gourd Collection

Henry, Johnson & Lord selling Dr. Henry Baxter’s Mandrake Bitters billhead – Burlington, Vermont, August 1, 1894

Dr. Henry Baxters Mandrake Bitters booklet – Joe Gourd Collection

Henry, Johnson & Lord Advertising Trade Card (front & back). Dr. Henry Baxter’s Mandrake Bitters noted on reverse – Joe Gourd Collection

Dr. Henry Baxter’s Mandrake Bitters – Meyer Collection

Mandrake

A mandrake is the root of a plant, historically derived either from plants of the genus Mandragora found in the Mediterranean region. The plants from which the root is obtained are also called “mandrakes”. Mediterranean mandrakes are perennial herbaceous plants with ovate leaves arranged in a rosette, a thick upright root, often branched, and bell-shaped flowers followed by yellow or orange berries. They are very variable perennial herbaceous plants with long thick roots (often branched) and almost no stem. The leaves are borne in a basal rosette, and are very variable in size and shape. They are usually either elliptical in shape or wider towards the end (obovate), with varying degrees of hairiness.

Because mandrakes contain deliriant hallucinogenic tropane alkaloids and the shape of their roots often resembles human figures, they have been associated with a variety of superstitious practices throughout history. They have long been used in magic rituals, today also in contemporary pagantraditions such as Wicca and Odinism. [Wikipedia]

Select Listings:

1821: Henry Baxter born on 15 April 1821 in Norwich, Windsor County, Vermont. Father: Ira Baxter, Mother: Arsena Baxter
1843: Married Adelia Inoly Woodruff (1822-1887) in 1843.
1850: Henry Baxter, 29, Birth Year: abt 1821, Birthplace: Vermont, Home in 1850: Highgate, Franklin, Vermont, Occupation: Doctor, Household Members: Henry Baxter 29, Aela Baxter 28, Frank W Baxter 7, George H Baxter 4, Charles E Baxter 2, Margret Gipson 26, Erastus Satwell 14 – United States Federal Census
1855: Henry, Johnson & Lord commenced business in Waterbury, Vermont in 1855.
1860: Henry Baxter, Age: 39, Birth Year: abt 1821, Birth Place: Vermont, Home in 1860: Highgate, Franklin, Vermont, Occupation: Physician, Real Estate Value: $4,000, Personal Estate Value: $10,000, Household Members: Henry Baxter 39, Adelia G Baxter 38, Frank W Baxter 16 – United States Federal Census
1863: Henry Baxter, Physician, Birth Year: abt 1822, Place of Birth: Vermont, Age on 1 July 1863: 41, Race: White, Residence: Highgate, Vermont, Congressional District: 3rd, Class: 2 – U.S. – Civil War Draft Registrations Records
1870: Henry Baxter, 49, Birth Year: abt 1821, Birthplace: Vermont, Living: Highgate, Franklin, Vermont, Occupation: Physician, Spouse: Adila Baxter, Children: Frank Baxter 29, Marion Baxter 28, Josephine Baxter 1 – United States Federal Census
1873: Earliest advertisement (see below) found for Baxters Mandrake Bitters, The Burlington Free Press, Wednesday, April 9, 1873

1897: Henry Baxter died on 27 September 1897 in Highgate, Franklin County, Vermont, Highgate Falls Episcopal Church Cemetery.

1899: The brand still being sold in 1899 (see below), Burlington Clipper, Saturday, April 15, 1899.

Posted in Advertising, Bitters, Druggist & Drugstore, Ephemera, History, Medicines & Cures | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Minerva Bitters – Aussie or American?

Minerva Bitters – Aussie or American?

09 March 2018 (R040118)

I’ve had a folder on my laptop set within my ‘t0-do’ list for some time for Minerva Bitters. The bottle is extremely rare. I can account for only two examples. My example is pictured above. The other was dug in Australia 40 years ago or so. It sure looks like an American bottle but there is strong evidence that it is from Australia around 1899. What do you think?

The Carlyn Ring and W.C. Ham listing in the forthcoming Bitters Bottles Supplement 2 is as follows:

M 98.5   MINERVA / BITTERS // MINERVA / BITTERS // MINERVA / BITTERS // f //
9 x 2 1/2 (7)
Square, Amber, LTC, Tooled lip, Smooth base, Extremely rare
Example dug in Australia
Probably American

This post is inspired by Larry Storm in reference to an email he sent to me recently.

Ferd,

I am seeking more information on the Minerva Bitters. It was previously unlisted, but Bill Ham has been made aware of its existence. One sold awhile back on ebay, mine would be the second known example. Mine (pictured above) was dug in Queensland (Northern Australia) about 40 years ago. It is embossed “Minerva Bitters” on 3 panels and measures 9″ x 2 1/2″. Dates around 1895 to 1900 I believe. I was told it was likely made in America, but based on the crudeness of the glass it appears to be Australian in origin, which makes more sense. I found an article for ‘The Minerva Company” which was from a March 1899 newspaper. It lists their products which includes the Minerva Bitters and it seems they were headquartered in Sydney. Any further information on this bottle would be appreciated! I have attached the article and a photo of my bottle. Thanks,

Larry Storm

Bitters collector Brian Shultis notes, “It is very possible it is from Australia. If it were American, it would be the only American square embossed BITTERS on three panels. Looked earlier than 1899 although.”

Note: My example came from Brian Shultis on eBay a number of years ago, again pictured at the top of this post.

Here are two newspaper clippings I had tucked away in the folder. The second is the same as what Larry found. Strong indication that it was made in Australia by The Minerva Company who were Manufacturing Chemists & Food Specialists in London, New York, Sydney and Melbourne, Australia. I need to more closely inspect my example which is packed up in storage. Some clues may be there. Stay tuned.

Minerva Bitters advertisement – Sunbury News, March 11 1899

Minerva Bitters mentioned in advertisement – Honolulu Star Advertiser, Monday, March 13, 1899

So who or what is Minerva? Probably named after Minerva who was the Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare. Looking in Ancestry.com, there were also a few people named Minerva Bitter or Minerva Bitters. Now I like that.


Hello Ferdinand,

With regards to the Minerva Bitters, the evidence is very supportive for the case of it being an Australian bitters bottle. I have attached images of the Minerva Eye Lotion Bottle which is mentioned in one of the examples of company advertising in the topic discussing the bitters. Also attached is a piece of advertising demonstrating the use of the name Minerva.

The eye lotion bottle is embossed to the base with a M, denoting manufacture by The Melbourne Glass Bottle Works which operated between 1872 and around the 1920s. It would be interesting to learn of any base marks on the bitters bottle.

Regards,

Peter Taylor
Lennox Head. NSW. Australia

Minerva Eye Lotion bottle. The base is embossed with a M, denoting manufacture by The Melbourne Glass Bottle Works.


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An extremely rare Newman’s Golden Fruit Bitters

An extremely rare Newman’s Golden Fruit Bitters

04 March 2018


An extremely rare Newman’s Golden Fruit Bitters sold on the recent Glass Works Auctions | Auction 119 that closed last Monday night. I’ve only seen the example above with the Carlyn Ring collection sticker. The example that sold looks to be a more ‘golden’ color (pictured below). Could be just the photography though.

The Carlyn Ring and W.C. Ham listing in Bitters Bottles is as follows:

N 22.5  NEWMAN’S (au) / motif – double ring GOLDEN FRUIT ( au ) / BITTERS ( ad ) // c //
10 3/4 x 3 3/8 x 2 1/8 (6)
Oval, Amber, LTC. Applied mouth, Extremely rare

I could find absolutely no information on this bottle. I did however find two unlisted bitters with ‘Fruit’ in the name. The first is Schimmel’s Celebrated Fruit Bitters from Charles Town, West Virginia dating to around 1879.

Schimmel’s Celebrated Fruit Bitters advertisement – Spirit of Jefferson (Charles Town, West Virginia), Tuesday, February 18, 1879

The second is Peerless Fruit Bitters from Indianapolis, Indiana also dating to around 1879. Put out by G. C. Van Camp.

Peerless Fruit Bitters advertisement – Quad City Times, Friday, November 21, 1879

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Looking at some French Bitters

Looking at some French Bitters

French Bitters – Morse & Williams – Milwaukee, Wisconsin

01 March 2018 (R•032318)

A really cool French Bitters (pictured above) put out by Morse & Williams showed up on the Glass Works Auctions | Auction 119 that closed this past Monday night. I wasn’t familiar with the bottle and see that it is rated ‘extremely rare’ in Bitters Bottles. The listing even notes “dug near Torch Lake, Michigan“. So I wonder, is this a second example? Where is the bottle from? Who is Morse & Williams?

Updated in BB2
F 86 FRENCH BITTERS // f // MORSE & WILLIAMS // f //
9 3/4 x 2 5/8 (5 3/4) 1/4
Square, Amber, LTC, Applied mouth, 2 sp, Extremely rare
Put out by Dr. French & Son, Hillsdale, Michigan. Brand was represented by James Allen &  Son, Dated around 1870
Example dug near Torch Lake, Michigan

Below is the Glass Works Auctions write-up on the lot which seems to not reference Bitters Bottles unless they know of other examples.

125. “FRENCH BITTERS – MORSE & WILLIAMS”, (Ring/Ham, F-86), American, ca. 1870 – 1880, medium amber, 10”h, smooth base, applied sloping collar mouth. Pristine perfect condition. Very rare and one of only a very few known examples. Larry Umbreit Collection.

A quick search pulls only one advertisement (below) for this brand and confirms that it is from Milwaukee, Wisconsin around 1869. Yep, pretty darn rare.

The listing in Bitters Bottles may want to be updated to include Milwaukee, Wisconsin and 1869 as noted in the advertisement.

French Bitters advertisement noting Morse & Williams.- Semi Weekly (Milwaukee), Wisconsin, Saturday, July 3, 1869

In my own collection, I have a few bitters with ‘French’ in the name. Many others by Frenchmen, many from New Orleans. This includes French Aromatique Bitters (F 85) and Steinfeld’s French Cognac Bitters (S 186). I even posted previously about French’s Cockade Bitters (F 89.5) and French’s Virginia Tonic Bitters (F 88L) where I have some advertising material and I am aware of the super rare Pasquier’s French Hygienic Bitters (P 29) from Louisville. I love that bottle.


Dr. F. French’s Strengthening Bitters

Dr. F. French – Hillsdale, Michigan

As usual, when I search for a specific bitters on the internet using various search engines like Google or research sites like Newspapers.com, Ancestry.com and Fold3, I come across other similar bitters. Since ‘French’ was the key word, I pulled up the following:

Dr. French’s Bitters (F 89) from Michigan. Dated around 1870. Put out by Dr. F. French & Son in Hillsdale, Michigan. It looks like his son was Charles G. French. The brand was represented by James Allen & Son. The listing may want to be updated in the forthcoming Bitters Bottles Supplement 2 to include the information above and clarify the bitters name as Dr. F. French’s Strengthening Bitters.

Dr. F. French’s Strengthening Bitters noted on the reverse of this Presential Series advertising trade card – Joe Gourd Collection

Dr. French’s Strengthening Bitters advertisement put out by Dr. F. French & Son, Hillsdale, Michigan – Steuben Republican (Angola, Indiana), Wednesday, July 27, 1870

Here is another Dr. French’s Bitters noted below. Maybe the same bitters though the marketing approach is different. The “F’ initial is missing from Dr. French’s name and this advertisement is 12 years later. It is in the same region though. Could be left over stock.

I checked with Bill Ham, co-author of the Bitters Bottles books and he provided the following listing for Bitters Bottles Supplement 2. 

Advertisement
F 83.2 DR. FRENCH’S BITTERS, A genuine Western Tonic, especially for farmers, Lumbermen and others exposed to our changeable climate. The trade supplied by Allen, Moon & Co..

Dr. French’s Bitters. Probable the same bitters though the marketing approach is different – The Saint Paul Globe (Minnesota) Wednesday, December 27, 1882


French’s Bitters

La Plata, Missouri

French’s Bitters (unlisted?) from La Plata, Missouri. Advertisement below from 1877. For sale in La Plata by Miller & Miller, Druggists and sold at Grimsley & Phillips’ Pioneer Saloon. The La Plata Home Press was a Democratic paper established on August 18, 1876 by J. B. Thompson. This eight page paper was released every Thursday in La Plata, Missouri by the Home Press Publishing Company. The paper’s name was changed to simply Home Press in 1880, but the original name was restored just nine years later. The paper was bought by Editor James Lewis Baity in 1898. The advertisement below is a great example of cross marketing the bitters as a medicine and alcoholic beverage sold in bars.

This could be the same bitters as the theme French Bitters from Milwaukee but I doubt it. A new listing may want to be added to the forthcoming Bitters Bottles Supplement 2. See update below.

Advertisement
F 85.7 FRENCH BITTERS, For sale by Miller & Miller, Druggists, and at Grimsley & Phillips” Pioneer Saloon in La Plata, Missouri, circa 1876-1880

French’s Bitters advertisement – La Plata Home Press (Missouri), Saturday, July 21, 1877


Dr. Griffith’s Savatti (or Sattavi) French Bitters

Dr. Griffith (Griffith & Son) – Lawrence, Kansas

Dr. Griffith’s Savatti (or Sattavi) French Bitters (unlisted?) from Lawrence, Kansas. Advertisement below appeared from 1868 to 1869. Dr. Griffith established a chemical laboratory in Lawrence, Kansas. He is noted as a graduate of the London University.

Funny how the ad below spells both ‘Savatti’ and ‘Sattavi’. Which is correct? Both seem to be a last name of someone.

I checked with Bill Ham, co-author of the Bitters Bottles books and he sees no listing for this bitters. A new bitters listing may want to be added to the forthcoming Bitters Bottles Supplement 2. Updated below.

Advertisement
G 116.2 DR. GRIFFITH’S SAVATTI FRENCH BITTERS, Griffith’s Chemical Laboratory, Lawrence Kansas, 1868-1869

Savatti French BittersLawrence Daily Journal (Kansas), Saturday, March 13, 1869


Dr. Ford’s French Stomach Bitters

Dr. R. T. Ford – Monongahela City, Pennsylvania (Pittsburgh)

Dr. R.T. Ford put out a Ford’s French Stomach Bitters, calling it a medicine in Monongahela City, Pennsylvania which is early Pittsburgh. The advertisement below is from 1860.

A new bitters listing may want to be added to the forthcoming Bitters Bottles Supplement 2. Updated below.

Advertisement
F 62.5 FORD’S FRENCH STOMACH BITTERS, Dr. R. T. Ford, Moningahela City, Pennsylvania, Advertised 1860

Dr. Ford’s French Stomach Bitters advertisement – Monongahela Valley Republican (Monongahela City, Pa.), Thursday, September 6, 1860


Dubonnet French Bitters

I. H. Oppenheim – Atlanta, Georgia

In the late 1907 advertisement from Atlanta, Georgia below, I. H. Oppenheim is trying to get rid of his entire stock including “Dubonnet” a celebrated French Bitters, splendid tonic and appetizer” $1.00 a bottle, regular price $1.50. This gets us away from the hard core bitters from a few decades prior as this is more of a drink stimulant.

A new bitters listing may want to be added to the forthcoming Bitters Bottles Supplement 2.

Dubonnet French Bitters advertisement – The Atlanta Constitution, Sunday, October 27, 1907


French Bitters in Volume

I can find many advertisements from across the country where large volumes of ‘French Bitter’s are being imported and sold. I can not associate any brand names and wonder what this is all about? Here are a few examples.

1 Cask French Bitters

Being auctioned by F.W. Bennett & Co. in Baltimore, Maryland in 1864.

1 cask French Bitters being auctioned by F.W. Bennett & Co. – The Baltimore Sun, Saturday, February 27, 1864


Fine Kentucky Liquors, French Bitters, McHenry Lager Beer and J. Schlitz Milwaukee Bottle Beer

Sold by Antony Englen’s Saloon & Restaurant in McHenry, Illinois in 1888. Is this a generic listing or a reference to the French Bitters which I lead off in this post. I seriously doubt it as it is about 20 years later. There would be more Morse & Williams French Bitters bottles out there.

Fine Kentucky Liquors, French Bitters, McHenry Lager Beer and J. Schlitz Milwaukee Bottle Beer advertisement – The McHenry Plaindealer (Illinois), Wednesday, July, 22 1891


Boyle & Co. in Cincinnati, Ohio selling Domestic Liquors, Wines, Cordials and French Bitters

I think we are going to have to call this a generic listing too. The interesting thing here in this early 1859 advertisement below, is reference to Boyle & Co. being an agent for F. Goule’s Japanese BittersI checked with Bill Ham, co-author of the Bitters Bottles books and he sees no listing for this bitters. A new bitters listing may want to be added to the forthcoming Bitters Bottles Supplement 2 (see update below).

Advertisement
F 83.3 FRENCH BITTERS, Boyle & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, advertisement 1859, Boyle & Co. is referenced as an agent for F. Goule’s Japanese Bitters

French Bitters listed generally in this advertisement along with F. Goule’s Japanese Bitters. – The Wheeling Daily Intelligencer (Virginia) Thursday, October 20, 1859


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A nice labeled Hindu Tonic Stomach Bitters

A nice labeled Hindu Tonic Stomach Bitters

22 February 2018

In the current Glass Works Auctions, Auction 119 there is an excellent example of a labeled Hindu Tonic Stomach Bitters prepared by liquor dealers Williams & Newman of Chicago, Illinois. The bottle appears to be unlisted. The example is clear with a fluted neck like a Dr. Loew’s Stomach Bitters. The bottle has some nice tax stamps and a trade mark image of the Minots Ledge Light or Cohasset Massachusetts Lighthouse on the front label. More on that later.

The GWA write-up is as follows:

134. Label Only Bitters Bottle, ‘Hindu / Trade (motif of a lighthouse) Mark / Tonic / Stomach Bitters / Prepared by / Williams & Newman / Chicago’, (Unlisted), Illinois ca. 1890 – 1900, clear glass with twisted neck, 9 3/8”h, smooth base, tooled mouth, 98% original labels are on all four indented panels, the back label has three tax stamps. The bottle is perfect. Others might exist, but we haven’t seen any! Larry Umbreit Collection. 

Hindu Tonic Stomach Bitters ad – The Salina Daily Union Monday October 13 1902

OK, why the Minot’s Ledge Light pictured on a Chicago brand? This lighthouse is located on Minots Ledge, one mile offshore of the towns of Cohasset and Scituate, Massachusetts, to the southeast of Boston Harbor. One of the early brands of Williams & Newman in Chicago was the popular Cohasset Punch which featured the Minot Light on the label. Later the Ladner Bros. took it over. The quote and letterhead below ties it together.

“How is it that a drink named after the town of Cohasset, Mass., came to be the definitive Chicago cocktail? Victorian-era actor William H. Crane was the Lon Chaney of his day — a master of transforming his features with greasepaint and putty. He was also one of the most successful actors of the time, making it possible for him to throw fashionable parties at his summer house in Cohasset. Having played long runs in Chicago’s Hooley Theatre and the opera house, Crane had plenty of opportunity to acquaint himself with the town’s better bartenders, one of whom he brought out to Cohasset to do the mixing at one of his parties. Gus Williams came up with an original drink of dark rum, sweet vermouth, lemon juice, orange bitters and the syrup from a can of peaches, that was the hit of the fête. And so, once back in Chicago, Williams put the punch he had created in Cohasset on the menu at his place, Williams & Newman, where it began its reign as the town’s most distinctive drink.”

 excerpt from Eric Felton’s Wall Street Journal article, “Drinking the Chicago Way” (December 20, 2008)

The Cohasset Punch

Minot’s Ledge Light – Cohasset and Scituate, Massachusetts

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Roger’s Specific Bitters – Moundsville, West Virginia

Roger’s Specific Bitters – Moundsville, West Virginia

20 February 2018

It’s alway nice to hear from bitters trade card, advertising and ephemera collector Joe Gourd up Chi-town way. Quite often he includes some rare paper items that I have not seen before. In this case a reference to Roger’s Specific Bitters. This brand appears to be unlisted. I am not aware of any bottles. The bitters was invented by Dr. Timothy Ross Rogers.

Good morning Ferd,

A couple of years ago you did a series of posts on Virginia bitters. I can’t recall if that also included West Virginia? If, in fact it did, I have another bitters to add to the list. This beautiful Rogers’ Specific Bitters trade card is from Moundsville, W. Virginia. It resides in Ben Swanson’s splendid collection.

These bitters are perhaps unlisted. The listing in Ham/Ring for R 83 Roger’s Bitters indicates that it came in POWDERED form. Yet the trade card illustration alongside the listing says that the product was available for 50 cents per BOTTLE. I’m wondering if we are talking about two different Bitters or possibly two forms of the same Bitters?

Hope all is well………..Joe

Roger’s & Sons – Moundsville, West Virginia

From the History of the Upper Ohio Valley, 1890

T. R. Rogers M., a retired physician, now a member of the firm of T. R. Rogers & Sons, of Moundsville, was born in Greene county, Penn., July 27, 1833, the son of John and Susan (Penn) Rogers. The father was a millwright, inventor of Rogers’ water wheel, and the first postmaster of the place called in his honor, Rogersville, Penn. He was born in 1800, and died in 1873, and his wife died in 1870 at the same age. Both were prominent members of the Methodist Protestant church, and they had nine children, of whom five survive.

Dr. Rogers attended the college at Waynesburgh, Penn., and then read medicine with Dr. Braden, of Rogersville, and attended the medical college of New York university, under Dr. Alexander Mott. He began practice when twenty-two years old at Davistown, Penn., then practiced two years at Des Moines, Iowa, afterward several years at Harnedsville, Somerset Co., Penn., and then at Selbysport, Md. At the outbreak of the war he moved to Rogersville, Penn., and nine years later to Waynesburgh, where he practiced fifteen years, removing thence to Moundsville, W. Va., in 1883. His practice has covered a period of thirty years. In Greene county he held the office of assistant assessor of internal revenue for several years, was examining surgeon for pensions three years, member of the school board and town council of Waynesburgh about seven years, served with marked efficiency in all positions. He has been a member of the town council of Moundsville four years, and he has served as postmaster at Rogersville and Harnedsville, Penn. In 1888 he was a delegate to the republican state convention which nominated Gen. Goff for governor of West Virginia, and in his party as well as in other channels, Dr. Rogers is quite influential. He is a member of the Masonic order, and he and family are members of the Methodist church. He was married in July, 1856, to Emma, daughter of John Frantz, of Selbysport, Md., and they have eight children: Nora, wife of  William Stidger; [John W. and Thomas, members of the firm of Rogers & Sons; El a, leading soprano of the Methodist choir, one of the finest in the state; Hallie; Nettie, wife of Dorsey Blake, and Eddie and Willie, deceased.

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